Yoga or PT Shown to Improve Back Pain and Sleep

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A new randomized controlled study suggests yoga and physical therapy (PT) are effective approaches to treat co-occurring sleep disturbances and back pain, thus reducing the need for medication.

Researchers from Boston Medical Center (BMC) discovered significant improvements in sleep quality lasting 52 weeks after 12 weeks of yoga classes or 1-on-1 PT. This finding suggests a long-term benefit of these non-pharmacologic approaches.

In addition, participants with early improvements in pain after 6 weeks of treatment were 3-1/2 times more likely to have improvements in sleep after the full, 12-week treatment. The results underscore the relationship between pain and sleep.

The study appears in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Sleep disturbance and insomnia are common among people with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Previous research showed that 59 percent of people with cLBP experience poor sleep quality and 53 percent are diagnosed with insomnia disorder.

Medication for both sleep and back pain can have serious side effects, and risk of opioid-related overdose and death increases with use of sleep medications.

“Identifying holistic ways to treat these conditions could help decrease the reliance on these medications as well as keep patients safer and more comfortable,” said Eric Roseen, D.C., M.Sc., a researcher in the department of family medicine at BMC.

The randomized controlled trial included 320 adults with cLBP from BMC and seven surrounding community health centers. At the beginning of the study, over 90 percent of participants with cLBP were found to suffer from poor sleep. Participants were assigned one of three different therapies for cLBP: physical therapy, weekly yoga, or reading educational materials.

Previous research from BMC discovered that yoga and PT are similarly effective for lowering pain and improving physical function, reducing the need for pain medication. In this study, results for sleep improvements were compared over a 12-week intervention period and after 1 year of follow-up.

“The high prevalence of sleep problems in adults with chronic low back pain can have detrimental effects on a person’s overall health and well-being,” said Roseen.

“This really emphasizes the need for providers to ask patients with chronic low back pain about the quality of their sleep. Given the serious risks of combining pain and sleep medications, nonpharmacologic approaches should be considered for these patients.”

Source: Boston Medical Center

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